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Cyclone: Cause, Destruction And Effective Safety Measures

In recent times we all heard about two cyclones that have caused major destruction in India. The first one is ‘Amphan’ and the second one is ‘Nisarga’. In this article let us learn about the cause, destruction and the safety measures of a cyclone.


Fast moving air towards a centre, usually with heavy rain is known as cyclone. Wind direction, wind speed, humidity and temperature together create cyclone.

When water vapour in the clouds cools down it releases heat. This heat warms the air around the clouds. The warm air rises up and creates a low pressure zone. This low pressure zone is quickly filled in by cooler air from the surrounding. This creates a system in which the centre has very low pressure and is surrounded by wind moving around it. The wind from the surroundings moves in a circular fashion towards the centre and gives rise to cyclone.

The centre of the cyclone is called ‘eye’. A cyclone may be 10 to 15 km high. It is a rotating mass of air. The diameter of eye may be vary from 10 to 30 km. Eye of a cyclone is a calm area, but around the eye air may move with high speed such as 150 to 250 km/h.

Destruction caused by Cyclone: A strong cyclone can be very destructive.

Since cyclone is accompanied with high speed wind, it can damage houses, telephone poles, electric poles and uproot trees.

Strong wind of the cyclone may push the sea water towards the sea shore in the form of high wave. These high waves may damage houses and push water to low land which may be accompanied with loss of life and properties.

Being the area of very low pressure, eye of cyclone lifts water in the centre. This may cause the rise of water up to 3 to 15 metre high. This appears like a water wall. This water wall when pushed towards seashore can inundate a large area, which can cause the loss of life and property.

In India, the eastern coastal region is more vulnerable to cyclones, in terms of intensity and frequency of cyclones, compared to the western coast.

Cyclone is known by different names in different countries. Cyclone is known as Hurricane in the American continent. It is known as Typhoon in Philippines and Japan.

Tornado: Tornadoes are the fast moving dark cloud in the shape of a funnel. The speed of violent tornadoes may be up to 300km. Tornadoes are as destructive as cyclone. Tornadoes may form within cyclones.

Anemometer: An instrument which measures the speed of wind.

Effective Safety Measures:

  1. Safety services towards cyclone and other disaster provided by Government and other agencies.
  2. Cyclone forecast and warning services:
    With the advances in technology, cyclone can be forecasted in about 24 to 48 hours in advance. This becomes possible because of satellites and computers. The technology can forecast a cyclone warning every half an hour.
  3. Rapid communication to the Government and concerned people:
    Communication about the cyclone is given quickly to the Government and the people so that proper safety measures and rescue operations can be carried out. Cyclone shelters in the cyclone prone area are constructed and shifting the people quickly to a safer place are the action steps carried out.
  4. Action on the part of people:
    Pay attention towards warning broadcasts from time to time. In case of a cyclone warning, stock necessary food items and medicines. If possible, move to a safer place. Fishermen should not venture into the sea during a cyclone warning. Cooperate with others in the community. Help the rescue team.
Sajid Mostaque

About Author: Sajid Mostaque has total work experience of 3 years in corporate world. He is a Program Implementation Associate. He is working with STEM Learning from last 9 months.

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